ARPHA Proceedings 3: 919-933, doi: 10.3897/ap.2.e0919
Developing Self-Efficacy of Future EFL Teachers
expand article infoLilya Sh. Karimova, Gulnara F. Biktagirova, Liliya R. Ismagilova
Open Access
The aim of this research is to experimentally prove that a set of forms and methods could provide self-efficacy of prospective EFL teachers. Bandura’s theory of social learning demonstrates the central role of self-efficacy. The author opts for teaching through observation, underlining the role of social experience and mutual determinism in personality development. However, in the course of our research, there were not found enough scientific papers on the development of self-efficacy as a component of professional identity and as a factor of teachers’ professional formation. The experiment was conducted with 80 final year students of KFU- prospective EFL teachers. The ascertaining stage of the experiment was to determine the initial values of self-efficacy: the level of formation of self-efficacy in learning; professional self-efficacy, communication self-efficacy. For this purpose, we employed ‘Questionnaire about teaching experiences during the final school teaching practice’ by Kaldi and ‘Self-efficacy Scale’ by Sherer et al. Statistical analysis of empirical research was done by means of standardized testing assessment in mathematical statistics (Wilcoxon T test). The results obtained at the ascertaining stage allowed to design a program for developing self-efficacy of prospective EFL teachers. Kaldi’s questionnaire enabled to determine that majority of participants were certain to possess the qualities and skills necessary for pedagogical activity. This means that future EFL teachers adequately assessed their skills and knowledge and were convinced that the school teaching practices, and the final one specifically, would equip them with a wealth of experience and would permit to perform in the profession properly. Self-efficacy Scale revealed that 80 % of the participants in both the experimental and control groups had an average level of professional self-efficacy. This indicates future EFL teachers believe in possessing the qualities, skills and capabilities they have acquired from previous practices and in employing them successfully in their future professional activity. However, the experimental group showed low level of communication self-efficacy. These results indicate an unsuccessful past experience that has affected the self-efficacy of some students. This led to a lack of confidence and belief in solving communicative problems and realizing successful communication by future EFL teachers. A high level of communication self-efficacy, on the contrary, means that future EFL teachers are assured to communicate successfully, establish rapport with schoolchildren and eliminate communication problems. Based on the analysis of psychological and pedagogical papers, we considered training to be the most effective means of developing self-efficacy of future EFL teachers. A number of training theories and our personal experience served the basis to design a program for developing self-efficacy of prospective EFL teachers. The formative stage of the experiment resulted in noticeable improvement of self-efficacy level in the experimental group.
self-efficacy, professional identity, professional communication, motivation, teaching practice, active learning methods